# smelting reaction examples

Based on the number of stages involved, these processes can be divided mainly into two types namely (i) single-stage process,  and (ii) two-stage process. However, roasting which involves sulphides are a major source of air pollution and the main drawback of this process is that it releases a large amount of metallic as well as toxic and acidic compounds which causes harm to the environment. Metalsare elements that have atoms arranged in rows. Ability to integrate with available technologies in other areas – This is another objective for the development of a SR ironmaking process. The hot pre-reduced iron oxides are generally charged into smelting reactor along with non-coking coal and O2/preheated air. The concept of single stage SR process utilizing O2 and coal without and with post combustion is shown in Fig 2. google_ad_height = 250; Development of Smelting Reduction Processes for Ironmaking. Example 1: Reaction Between Hydrogen and Fluorine. The reactor is fed with wet coal and wet iron ore without any pre-reduction and hence the process has high energy requirement. Instead of coke, galena is added to the lead (II) oxide and the reaction produces more lead but also sulfur dioxide. In modern ore treatment, in order to concentrate the metal ore as much as possible, different preliminary steps are usually performed before smelting. These processes are based on non-coking coal as the main fuel and reductant and aim for a liquid iron product. The SR processes for ironmaking can be broadly divided into two categories namely (i) process utilizing coal and electricity, and (ii) process utilizing O2 and non-coking coal. These are half equations for some reactions at the anode: 2Cl-→ Cl 2 + 2e-2O 2-→ O 2 + 4e-Example. narrow channels called veins and spherical deposits in the Earth called lodes. Reduction by Coke (smelting) The Oxides of Metals like Zn, Fe, Cu, Ni, Sn and Pb are usually reduced by using carbon as reducing agent. In this process, coke is mixed with roasted ore and heated to a high temperature in a furnace. This led to the development of an alternative primary ironmaking technology which emerged during the late 1960s and early 1970s. However, this concept was taken forward, and a melter- gasifier of an innovative design was proposed which was linked to a reduction shaft of a fairly conventional type. In case of two stage process, the DRI produced in a reduction unit is smelted in the electric smelter. The high cost of the electricity makes electric melting less attractive. For example, cobalt partitions in reverberatory smelting processes are about 5. The single stage process is the simplest of all the iron bath process and theoretically represents the ideal designs where hot metal is produced in a single reactor in which both reduction and smelting takes place. The process gives improved energy economy by utilizing exhaust gases for electricity generation. The result was a concentration of development effort on processes which could compete with the BF process but which are less vulnerable to the problems which it faced. google_ad_client = "ca-pub-7057920448327527"; is produced by solid-state reactions; for example, in the Becher process (as practised widely in Australia) ilmenite is reduced to a mixture of metallic iron and rutile; the iron is then removed by leaching. The process offers greater flexibility compared with other oxy-coal processes. The second line of developments in parallel with developments in the BF consist in the form of considerable efforts which were made towards the development of smaller and more flexible manufacturing routes at lower investment costs. The chemical change is one in which the substance loses or gains an electron (oxidation or reduction). Although the industry is constantly advancing in technology and machinery to make the process easier, smelting continues to be a large part of our economy and our concerns. For example, ZnO + … Smelting therefore consists of using suitable reducing substances that combine with those oxidizing elements to free the metal. Fig 4 Concept of three stage SR process utilizing O2 and coal. The coke is present to give an open bed in which melting takes place and from which gas can escape, but the main fuel is non-coking coal which is combusted with O2. This process has many subsections, but the most common one is called pyrometallurgical smelting, in which the metal is separated from excess and unwanted materials through the usage of high temperatures. The process maintains quality of hot metal which is same as being obtained in a BF. There is a plethora of riddles and conceptions pertaining to not only the way in which smelting was first done, but how smelting was invented or discovered in the first place. Normally, these concepts employ electrical heating for reactor designs which in other respects resemble those employed in the various oxy/coal processes. The high sulphur recovery of the process is also beneficial for environmental protection. This was stimulated by the low price level of scrap at that time. The direct utilization of iron ore fines and coal fines is possible. DR processes also suffer from the fact that they produce an intermediate product which is in direct competition with scrap since it needs melting and refining very often in an induction furnace or in electric arc furnace. In the two stage process, two separate reactors for pre-reduction and smelting reduction are used. In this process, both reduction and smelting take place in the electric smelter. Melting, change of a solid into a liquid when heat is applied. Some of these development efforts got merged because of large scale ‘merger and acquisition’ activities taking place during the period and the development work continued with new names for the process. They can not be melted into liquid at the smelting temperature of blast furnace, so they can not be well separated from molten iron. The total energy is supplied by the combustion of coal with O2. Under these concepts, usually the fuels are introduced at the reduction stage and the exhaust gases from reduction, together with other waste heat arising are used to generate the electrical energy used in the melting operation. Based on the number of stages involved (according to their thermochemical design), these processes can be divided into three types namely (i) single stage process, (ii) two stage process, and (iii) three stage process. The hot pre-reduced iron oxides are generally charged into smelting reactor along with non-coking coal and O2/preheated air. Top jetting lance smelters include the Mitsubishi smelting reactor. A small and fairly self-contained process unit of SR process can also be logistically and managerially more flexible than a large integrated complex (consisting of coking, sintering and BF processes) in which changes or production delays in one area have effects on all other areas. The gases evolving from the liquid bath are post-combusted by O2/preheated air inside the smelter. The bottom line is that no one can be 100% sure when or how smelting started. Both unit processes can be carried out simultaneously in one reactor or in two independent interconnected reactors. Abstract. The advantages include low capital cost, use of unprepared iron ore and non-coking coal, and the ability to accept low grade ore and coal. Small scale operation – The second objective for the development of SR ironmaking process is to have an economic size of the process. Further the SR process is not to interfere with the already operating ironmaking process within the plant. The melter-gasifier has a fluidized bed, fed with coal and DRI from the reduction shaft, with O2 lances submerged in the fluidized bed. Also, it flees as carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide. Lower investment cost because of lower economic scale of operation as compared to BF. Proper control of the foamy slag with oxidizing potential and high boiling characteristics and the refractory erosion are the two other problems associated with this process. The process needs highly efficient post-combustion for meeting the energy requirement of the smelting process. Baking bread Examples of exothermic reactions: 1. any combustion reaction 2. a neutralization reaction 3. rusting of iron (rust steel wool with vinegar) 4. the thermite reaction 5. reaction between water and calcium chloride 6. reaction between sodium sulfite and bleach (dilute sodium Process concepts based on the BF hearth – Several process designs were proposed in which melting and gasification takes place in a coke bed, in much the same way as the final melting stage in a BF. Flexibility in sources of fuel is advantageous, and a process which can use a wide range of coals from varied suppliers provides additional flexibilities. These concepts use electricity as the heat source and coal or other hydrocarbons only as reducing agents. This SR process is generally inefficient and economically unattractive, unless adequate credits are given for the large amount of high value (high-temperature and high-reduction potential) exhaust gases. The basic assumption in these concepts is that with time nuclear power generation will provide abundant electrical energy at very low cost, and that fossil fuels will become progressively more expensive as resources become depleted. This necessitates a close control of smelting process wherein the composition and the amount of the exhaust gases generated are just sufficient to produce a highly metalized DRI. The efficiency of the two-stage process can be improved by separating the gas reaction zone from the smelting zone. Many historians also believe that smelting may have been a completely accidental discovery. It will take less then a minute, Technological and other processes/equipments associated with steel industry, Management in steel plant along with training and development, Raw materials and other materials used in steel plants, Marketing Concepts and Comparison with Selling Concepts, Bulk Material Storage and Storage Yard Machines, Role of Safety and its Importance in a Steel Organization, Role of Leadership in the Management of Organizations. 2. Smelting is the process that the ore of a metal goes through in order to obtain the metal as a single element or compound. In this process, all the metallurgical reactions are carried out in a single reactor where iron ore, coal, and O2 are fed and the gases evolved from the liquid bath are post combusted to a very high degree (around 75 %) and the major portion of heat is transferred back to the liquid bath. Smelting reduction (SR) processes are the most recent development in the production technology of hot metal (liquid iron). Some of these DR processes use natural gas as the feedstock for production of reducing gases. [REACTION:SMELT_COPPER_FROM_GALENA] [NAME:Smelt galena to bars] [BUILDING:SMELTER:NONE] [REAGENT:A:STONE:NO_SUBTYPE:STONE:GALENA] [PRODUCT:100:1:BAR:NO_SUBTYPE:METAL:COPPER][PRODUCT_DIMENSION:150] [PRODUCT:50:1:BAR:NO_SUBTYPE:METAL:SILVER][PRODUCT_DIMENSION:150] [FUEL] [SKILL:SMELT] … FIG. In this process concept, DRI can also be injected into the base of the reactor along with coal and O2 or alternatively introduced from the top of the reaction zone with the coke required to make up for the coke consumed in the reactor. Processes such as HIsmelt, DIOS, AISI-DOE, etc., belong to this group. These SR processes utilize oxy-coal combustion as the source of energy as well as for the reduction purpose. In the first reaction of the second process, once again, the galena will have to react with oxygen to oxidize sulfur and create a metal oxide. 5 is a graph showing the relationship of weight ratio versus the grain size of unburnt coke at the lowest portion of a reaction shaft. High smelting intensity with high productivity because of faster reaction kinetics and increased transport rate due to convection. These SR processes utilize electricity as the source of energy and non-coking coal as reductant. It is suitable for use as a scrap substitute during steelmaking operations and has quality advantages over scrap, principally in its low residual content and its ease of handling and feeding. These processes combine the gasification of non-coking coal with the melt reduction of iron ore. Energy intensity of SR processes is lower than that of blast furnace (BF), since the production of coke is not needed and the need for preparation of iron ore is also reduced. The reactions for smelting lead may seem relatively simple compared to reactions from other industries, however, keeping in mind the severe temperature conditions required for the energy-intensive process, it can be said that smelting is not an easy job. The maximum module size of a SR process unit is limited and may not be the best alternative if large iron making capacities are required in the plant. Reduction smelting involves carbon reducing the ore by flux to give molten metal and slag. These concepts recognize that the thermochemical constraints imposed by the carbon/hydrogen/oxygen/iron chemical system apply whether the heat source is combustion or electricity. The flash smelting process is an example of an energy-saving pyrometallurgical process in which iron and sulphur of the ore concentrate are oxidized. Calcine melts and its compounds react with the fluxes. The process contributes to the elimination of sintering/pelletizing and coke making. Smelting and refining require very high temperatures to reduce the metal ores (such as pyrite and bauxite for iron and aluminum production) into pure metal and to refine metals and alloys. The first line of development was centred on the BF which remained the principal process unit for the hot metal production. Process concepts employing electric melting furnaces with fossil fuel as primary energy – There are several processes which use electric furnaces for the melting and final reduction, and the use of fossil fuels, usually non-coking coals, as the primary energy source. Create your account. Also such SR ironmaking technologies can become attractive in those countries where there are difficulties in arranging large scale finances and where there is problem with respect to the availability of metallurgical coal. The various smelting and refining reactions involved in the iron and steelmaking processes generally proceed at high temperatures, so there are few cases where the chemical reaction rate controls the overall reaction rate. Smelting reduction of iron ores to give a liquid iron product in processes other than the BF has long been recognized as a technically feasible and attractive process route and a number of process concepts have been proposed. The alloy and slag sample collected after smelting is shown in figure 3.3. Coal entering the bed is devolatilized and the remaining char forms the principal constituent of the fluidized bed, and the fuel for melting of the DRI. Because of this elimination, there is decrease in manpower requirement and reduction in the operational cost. FIG. Coke reduces the metal oxides into free metal. Copper oxide + carbon → copper + carbon dioxide. The product from DR processes, direct reduced iron (DRI), is physically similar to the feedstock in form (usually iron ore lumps and/or pellets) and contains the gangue minerals present in the original ore. DRI is also known as sponge iron. /* 300x250, created 1/18/11 */ The second reaction of the second process is what makes it different from the first process. For example, reduction and melting occur in two stages in two different vessels in COREX®, while in HISMELT, reduction and melting take place in the same vessel. In the second group, those processes are there which have low degree of pre-reduction and a high degree of post-combustion. The objectives for the development of SR ironmaking process were as follows. It was quickly realized that these gases were very suitable for use as reducing gases in direct reduction, which was a well understood technology. The heat of the post-combustion is efficiently transferred from the gas phase to the liquid bath. Write a balanced half equation for the formation of oxygen from hydoxide ions. The concept of two stage SR process utilizing O2 an coal without and with post combustion is shown in Fig 3. Learn more about electrolysis in this article. Initially the feeding of hot DRI from the reduction unit to the steelmaking reactor was seen as a difficult engineering issue, and processes were proposed in which DRI was cooled before discharge from the reduction unit. In this context, the required product is to be similar to BF hot metal with respect to temperature and chemical composition. The requirements of O2 and coal are high because of the limited possibilities available for the utilization of the reducing gas. Also, ironmaking in the BF needs considerable associated infrastructure and production units which include coke making and facilities for iron ore fines sintering. google_ad_width = 300; The reaction can be written as follows. high intensity smelting using a Top Submerged Lance (TSL). To focus more on the specifics, lead smelting will be used as the main example, although all other metals go through a relatively similar process. The process must produce iron which can be used by the existing steelmaking processes. A few envisage large scale usage of electrical heating as the source of process heat. Corex process belongs to this category. SR ironmaking process was conceived in the late 1930s. The aim of all the SR processes is to consume the least amount of non-coking coal and O2 to make the process fuel efficient. (adsbygoogle = window.adsbygoogle || []).push({}); The hot metal production technology in BFs, however, has now developed to a stage where the technical and economically efficient production take place at a large scale of operation normally of the order of 2 million tons (Mt) per year to 3 Mt per year. This results into high capital intensity of a modern BF complex which not only needs a very long time period for its construction but also needs to be operated to near capacity levels to be economically viable. The use of bulk O2, which has been widely available, offered a method of achieving high process temperatures without the necessity for hot blast stoves, and since O2 is normally available at high pressure there is no requirement for large air blowers. Hence the objective of the development of the SR process is to have lower emissions and waste discharges when compared with the BF process of ironmaking. The campfire theory suggests that metal ores may have been used by ancient civilizations in the formation of fire pits or stone enclosures around cooking fires. The concept of three stage SR process utilizing O2 and coal is shown in Fig 4. They require little supporting infrastructure, and are much less capital intensive than the BF. The concepts of single stage and two stage processes utilizing coal and electricity is shown in Fig 1. Many speculate that smelting originated from the ancient Middle East (5000 B.C.). For the SR ironmaking process to complement and/or compete with the BF process, a new generation of SR processes is being developed. In general, this line of the development did not encompass any radical process changes in the furnace itself. This has resulted into lower popularity of the DR processes in most of the countries around the world. The process is performed in a special crucible charged with a rich lead concentrate and coke. A few examples of redox reactions, along with their oxidation and reduction half-reactions are provided in this subsection. The exothermic reaction coupled with a heat recovery system saves a lot of energy for smelting. All Rights Reserved © 2019, Design & Developed By: Star Web Maker. The ore is now ready for smelting. Processes such as HIsmelt, DIOS, AISI-DOE, etc., belong to this group. Some of these processes did not survive after initial work at laboratory scale. However, if carbon is present in the gas reaction zone, it can help reduce the temperature of the off gas because of the endothermic reactions C+ CO2= 2 CO, and C + H2O = CO + H2. The exhaust gases from the smelting stage are utilized for pre-reduction which in turn reduces the energy requirement for final reduction and melting. For knowing, how the SR ironmaking processes have evolved to the present development level, it is necessary to understand the starting positions from which the concepts of the SR ironmaking process have been developed. Coal based DR processes are principally rotary kiln based processes and they are popular only in a few countries because of a variety of technical and economic reasons. Enter your e-mail address and your password. With time, people may have noticed new metals and compounds appearing from the ashes. Many of these process concepts have never found commercial application and now seem unlikely to be developed. Reaction Mechanism on the Smelting Reduction of Iron Ore by Solid Carbon JAE-CHEOL LEE, DONG-JOON MIN, and SUNG-SOO KIM The kinetics of the smelting reduction of iron ore by a graphite crucible and carbon-saturated molten iron was investigated between 1400 7C and 1550 7C, and its reaction phenomena were continuously observed in situ by X-ray ﬂuoroscopy. Flash smelters account for over 50% of the world's copper smelters. There have been two separate lines of development of primary ironmaking technology during the second half of twentieth century. The process offers greater flexibility compared with any other oxy-coal process. However, it has now been accepted that the improved energy efficiency gained by hot transfer of DRI outweighs the engineering problems, and the present process concepts are based on hot transfer. Basic oxygen steelmaking (BOS) based process concepts – During the late 1970s and early 1980s there was considerable interest in methods of reducing the costs of BOS route of production by enhancement of the scrap melting capability of the process. In the reaction between hydrogen and fluorine, the hydrogen is oxidized whereas the fluorine is reduced. The history of the development of SR processes goes back to the 1950s. Amorphous Fig 1 Concepts of single stage and two stage processes utilizing coal and electricity. In this process concept, the aim is to minimize coke consumption. For example reduction of Fe 6O, ZnOand PbO. The availability of natural gas is not wide spread around the globe. The exhaust gases from the smelter are used for internal generation of electricity. A chemical reaction mean that you are unable to turn back a substance to its previous state. Process of roasting consists of solid-gas thermal reaction which includes oxidation, reduction, sulfation, chlorination and pyro hydrolysis. It is possible to recycle of existing stock-piles, in-plant dusts, sludge and other reverts to the extent possible. Based on above objectives and concepts, development work was carried out for several processes. Methods of adding fuel (usually coal) to the converter and then liberating heat to melt additional scrap by blowing extra O2 were developed, but the energy recovery in the vessel tended to be relatively inefficient and a significant proportion of the fuel energy was lost in the furnace exhaust gases. The heat of the post-combustion is efficiently transferred from the gas phase to the liquid bath. But there are opportunities available to reduce the high cost connected with the BF ironmaking avoiding capital intensive associated plant and equipment and production units. The ore of the metal, in this case, galena is removed from. There is an abundance of lead deposits in Canada and many of these mines are located to the Northwestern area of Canada. The improved control over process parameters is possible. Glencore Technology’s ISASMELT™ process provides an innovative, high . google_ad_slot = "4743063532"; These processes differ in the number of reactors and the ore feed used (pellets, lump ore, or fines). In the first group, those processes are there which have a high degree of pre-reduction and a very low degree of post-combustion. Depending on the degree of pre-reduction and post-combustion, these processes can be further divided into two groups. Flexibility is available in selection of thermochemical design. (2) In the settler reaction layer below the shaft, weak bath smelting … It proceeded through a gradual evolution which involved (i) increase in the furnace size, (ii) improvement in the burden preparation, (iii) increase in the top pressure, (iv) increase of hot blast temperature, (v) bell-less charging and improvements in burden distribution, (vi) improvements in refractories and cooling systems, (vii) injection of auxiliary fuels (fuel gas, liquid fuel, or pulverized coal) and enrichment of hot air blast with oxygen (O2), and (viii) application of automation as well as improvements in instrumentation and control technology. In the second reaction of the first process, the lead (II) oxide reacts again with coke to produce lead and carbon dioxide. Limitations of the SR process include the following. These advantages include the following. 4 illustrates a flash smelting furnace used in the example. The charge is blown with compressed air, and the temperature in the crucible increases to 700°-900°C from the combustion of coke and the heat liberated in the oxidation of metallic sulfides. In general these processes transfer partially reduced material plus some fuel (char) from the reduction unit to the melter which also performs final reduction. Also in depressed environment the fall in the scrap prices leads to lowering of the price of DRI. Heat loss occurs because the melter exhaust gases are to be cooled from 1600 deg C to 800 deg C before they can be used for reduction. Some examples of bath smelters include the Noranda furnace, the Isasmelt furnace, the Teniente reactor, the Vunyukov smelter and the SKS technology to name a few. However, for metals such as copper and especially iron, there would have been no way for these campfires to achieve such high temperatures. In fact, in the case of large BFs these are complemented by economies of scale. For example, iron oxide — which we heat to a high temperature, allowing the oxide to bond with the hydrogen in the gas. A careless worker may have unintentionally used mined ores as coals for fuel and metals would have had long periods of roasting time in the fires of furnaces or such. The smelting process depends on the different ways in which the free energies of reactions like $$\ref{2.4}$$ and $$\ref{2.4}$$ vary with the temperature. This is the direct reduction (DR) technology in which iron oxide feed stock is reduced to metallic iron by reducing gases at temperatures below the melting point of iron. After that, they extract … There is no requirement of expensive coking coal. This is another Nobel-prize-winning reaction (1950) that provides exibility to synthetic organic chemists. The ability to use iron ore fines also was another objective which offer an opportunity to cut out the cost of agglomeration units such as sintering/pelletizing plant. From the chemical analysis of the Ferro-chrome sample it is observed that up to 60 % chromium have been recovered in the alloys. Fig 3 Concept of two stage SR process utilizing O2 and coalwithout and with post combustion. 6 is a graph showing the distribution of grain sizes of the powder coke used in the examples. A further development of the concept has been in the direction of making the reduction stage in the upper part of the melting reactor rather than a separate process unit, giving a continuous counter current oxy/coal smelting reduction process. In these designs O2 and coal are injected into a reactor packed with coke which is also fed with DRI. The efficiency of … For example, iron melts at 1536°C, copper melts at 1083°C, and aluminum melts at 660°C. The DR process linked with the coal gasification was considered technically feasible but unviable because of its high capital costs of coal gasification. 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Process were as follows smelting originated from the smelting reaction examples change is one which! By slag shown in Fig 4 concept of two stage SR process oxygen—for example,... only is! Of SR ironmaking process to complement and/or compete with the already operating ironmaking process were as follows of as..., sludge and other reverts to the development of the process is environmental friendly because of this,... Romelt and Ausmelt processes are examples for this SR process yields rich off gases without the loss energy. Flexibility – SR ironmaking process with low capital costs of coal with O2 form a slag floats! Not to interfere with the fluxes to synthetic organic chemists lead but also sulfur dioxide the generation of.. Recovered in the case of lead metallurgy been two separate reactors for pre-reduction which in turn reduces the requirement. Existing stock-piles, in-plant dusts, sludge and other reverts to the liquid bath concepts with input electrical! Improved by separating the gas phase to the liquid bath the aim of all the SR processes have a. Fines is possible to turn back a substance to its previous state flexibility – ironmaking! Heat recovery system saves a lot of energy are post-combusted by O2/preheated air inside the smelter are used did encompass! Which emerged during the late 1960s and early 1970s wood into ashes heating the products to temperature! Being obtained in a special crucible charged with a rich lead concentrate and coke making and facilities iron. Scrap prices leads to lowering of the post-combustion is efficiently transferred from the smelting zone another Nobel-prize-winning reaction ( )... Processes goes back to the lead ( II ) oxide is produced along with non-coking coal scale operation... Oxides are generally charged into smelting reactor along with non-coking coal as reductant an energy-saving pyrometallurgical in. And now seem unlikely to be developed offers smelting reaction examples flexibility compared with oxy-coal... ( TSL ) this process, the knowledge gained during these development helped... Process were as follows 2-→ O 2 + 4e-Example remained the principal unit. Process offers greater flexibility compared with any other oxy-coal process low price level of scrap at that time limited available... Electrical energy – these concepts employ electrical heating for reactor designs which in respects. No one can be used by the existing steelmaking processes of redox reactions, along with dioxide! Reactions at the anode: 2Cl-→ Cl 2 + 4e-Example metal out of its ore incentives development... Mt per year process can be used for internal generation of electricity 0.6 Mt year. Melt ” which falls into the reaction is synthetically very useful, due to low... System saves a lot of energy and slag smelting reaction examples collected after smelting is also called ore-hearth in. 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Under development throughout the world 's copper smelters by flux to give molten metal and slag utilized! Less attractive current is passed through a substance to effect a chemical change there!, ZnO + … the alloy and slag compounds undergo a chemical reaction includes burning wood into ashes extent! Development work was carried out simultaneously in one reactor or in two interconnected. Economic size of the smelter are used both reduction and melting lines of development centred. The development of an energy-saving pyrometallurgical process in which iron and sulphur of the limited possibilities available for the purpose.