Mitochondrial localization and putative signaling function of sucrose synthase in maize. Received: 08 November 2018; Accepted: 21 January 2019;Published: 08 February 2019. Right side shows photosynthesis in which sunlight and water in the atmosphere are absorbed by plants and algae to generate ATP and NADPH, which make carbohydrates and other organic carbon products from carbon dioxide, which is absorbed from the atmosphere separately. Companion-cell specific localization of sucrose synthase in zones of phloem loading and unloading. To be metabolized, Suc must be cleaved by either cytosolic invertase or SuSy (EC 126.96.36.199). Structure, expression profile, and evolution of the sucrose synthase gene family in peach (Prunus persica). Proc. 121, 599–608. The brush borders produces another enzyme referred to as maltase that breaks down maltose into glucose. It is likely that feedback inhibition of SuSy activity and substrate inhibition of fructokinase by Fru (Schaffer and Petreikov, 1997; Kanayama et al., 1998) work together to impose a double break that controls the amount of Suc cleavage (German et al., 2003). Plant physiologists and biochemists have tried to find the first product of this process. 120, 1105–1116. High SuSy activity and protein levels were reported in differentiating xylem of Robinia pseudoacacia during the spring (Hauch and Magel, 1998). G6P can be used to form nucleotide sugars such as UDP-glucose (UDP-G), and UDP-G is combined with F6P to form sucrose 6-phosphate (sucrose-P) in a reaction catalyzed by sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS). Glucose and mannose regulate the expression of a major sucrose synthase gene in Arabidopsis via hexokinase-dependent mechanisms. Arabidopsis knock-out mutants are available for all SUS genes and double mutants for clade-specific SuSy isoforms have been created. A few SuSy isoforms have also been detected in cell walls. (2018). Oxygen is passed into the atmosphere and the hydrogen is used to assimilate carbon dioxide in a dark (non photosynthetic) reaction that forms starch, sucrose, and another disaccharide called maltose. Sucrose synthase in legume nodules is essential for nitrogen fixation. In the cytosol, Suc can be hydrolyzed by cytosolic INV to yield Glc and Fru, or cleaved by cytosolic SuSy to yield Fru and UDP-G. The expression of the SUS3 gene was found to be higher in the resistant line under heat stress. F1,6BP is then further metabolized to yield other hexose phosphates, such as fructose 6-phophate (F6P) and glucose 6-phosphate (G6P). Phosphorylation of rice sucrose synthase isoforms promotes the activity of sucrose degradation. Carbon partitioning to cellulose synthesis. (1995). 65, 33–67. It is more likely that SuSy are interacting with other proteins and form a complex that is also associated with the cellulose synthases or callose synthases located to membranes (Persia et al., 2008; Fujii et al., 2010). Biol. doi: 10.1080/13102818.2017.1412271, Huang, Y. C., Hsiang, E. C., Yang, C. C., and Wang, A. Y. Biochem. U.S.A. 106, 13118–13123. Plant SUS gene families are usually small, containing between four to seven genes, with distinct exon-intron structures. 117, 85–90. Another reason to believe that Suc and SuSy may play some regulatory function rather than just a metabolic one comes from tomato plants in which the expression of three SUS genes was suppressed (Goren et al., 2017). 54, 1407–1414. doi: 10.1104/pp.120.4.1105, Cai, G., Faleri, C., Del Casino, C., Emons, A. M., and Cresti, M. (2011). We still do not know whether SuSy isoforms from different clades differ in their structure or enzymatic activity. Relatively high mRNA levels and activity were also reported in carrot tap root xylem (Sturm et al., 1999). doi: 10.1016/S0014-5793(97)01506-8, Winter, H., Huber, J. L., and Huber, S. C. (1998). This chloroplast starch synthesis pathway does not require Suc cleavage and, therefore, cytosolic SuSy is not expected to play an important role in leaf starch synthesis. doi: 10.1073/pnas.0402883101, Barratt, P. D. H., Derbyshire, P., Findlay, K., Pike, M., Wellner, N., Lunn, J., et al. J. In vitro phosphorylation of rice SuSy proteins, Rsus1-3 may promote SuSy activity (Takeda et al., 2017). (2012). Biol. (2009). Sucrose synthase levels do not limit or regulate carbon transfer in the arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis. In maize, the shrunken (sh) mutant is characterized by a 90% reduction in endosperm SuSy activity, low seed weight and a shrunken-seed phenotype (Chourey and Nelson, 1976). Phosphorylation of sucrose synthase at serine 170: occurrence and possible role as a signal for proteolysis. Plant Biotechnol. Planta 232, 701–718. Required fields are marked *. Sci. Presence of three rice sucrose synthase genes as revealed by cloning and sequencing of cDNA. The results also revealed increased expression of both WUSCHEL (WUS) and CycD3, leading to the increased proliferation of meristematic cells. (1986). AtSUS1 expression was found to be regulated by Glc via a HXK-dependent pathway (Ciereszko and Kleczkowski, 2002), meaning that not only does SUS regulate Suc metabolism, but that its own expression is also regulated by sugars. Proc. Differential expression of two types of sucrose synthase-encoding genes in wheat in response to anaerobiosis, cold shock and light. Plant Physiol. SuSy activity was also suggested as an indicator for high rice grain yield in rice breeding programs (Counce and Gravois, 2006). doi: 10.1016/j.jplph.2007.02.001, Komina, O., Zhou, Y., Sarath, G., and Chollet, R. (2002). In non-photosynthetic tissues, the transported Suc is the raw material for many metabolic pathways, providing energy, as well as carbon skeletons for the production of organic matter such as amino acids, nucleotides and structural carbohydrates. In the parasitic plant Phelipanche ramosa, PrSUS1 transcript was found in the xylem of developing roots (Peron et al., 2012). Chem. The Supplementary Material for this article can be found online at: https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fpls.2019.00095/full#supplementary-material. 34, 1–10. J. Exp. Site-directed mutagenesis of an E-X7-E motif of the GT-B domain of rice SuSy, RSuS3, revealed two glutamate residues (E678 and E686) and a phenylalanine residue (680) that are essential for the enzymatic activity (Huang et al., 2016). Doehlert, D. C., and Kuo, T. M. (1990). Ann. RNAseq data obtained by Park et al. The key dark reaction, the production of phosphoglycerate by the enzyme ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase (rubisco), is described along with the production of fructose, sucrose, and starch (Sect. Natl. J. doi: 10.1007/BF00020799, Hirose, T., Scofield, G. N., and Terao, T. (2008). Increased SuSy activity under low-oxygen conditions has been noted in many plants and is often seen in combination with reduced INV activity in rice seedlings (Guglielminetti et al., 1995), maize seedlings (Zeng et al., 1998, 1999), Arabidopsis roots (Bieniawska et al., 2007), wheat roots (Albrecht and Mustroph, 2003) and potato tubers (Biemelt et al., 1999). Sucrose synthase may play another, less studied role in the development of shoot apical meristem (SAM). doi: 10.1093/pcp/pcr067, Bailey-Serres, J., Kloeckener-Gruissem, B., and Freeling, M. (1988). Plant Physiol. In plant photosynthesis, carbon dioxide is fixed in the chloroplasts via the Calvin cycle to yield triose phosphates (triose-P). 1.2K views. doi: 10.1016/S2095-3119(17)61755-6, Van Bel, M., Diels, T., Vancaester, E., Kreft, L., Botzki, A., Van De Peer, Y., et al. 203, 1220–1230. doi: 10.1104/pp.78.1.149, Morrell, S., and Rees, T. A. doi: 10.1016/j.tplants.2004.07.005, Fukuda, A., Yoshinaga, S., Nagata, K., and Shiratsuchi, H. (2008). Your email address will not be published. doi: 10.1046/j.1365-313X.2003.01765.x, Gordon, A. J., Minchin, F. R., James, C. L., and Komina, O. Similarly, overexpression of SUS resulted in higher ADP-G levels and starch accumulation in maize endosperm (Li et al., 2013), and Arabidopsis T-DNA mutants for AtSUS2 and AtSUS3 exhibited reduced transient starch accumulation in seeds during early to mid-development (Angeles-Nunez and Tiessen, 2010). Plant Physiol. Plant Mol. 101, 800–806. Plant Growth Regul. U.S.A. 92, 9353–9357. Biol. Rev. Sucrose synthase catalyzes the de novo production of ADPglucose linked to starch biosynthesis in heterotrophic tissues of plants. doi: 10.1071/FP06234, Ruan, Y. L. (2014). Plant Physiol. To summarize, plant SuSy activity has been shown to play important roles in plant sugar metabolism, primarily in sink tissues. Our phylogenetic tree (Figure 2) groups all of gymnosperm SuSy amino acid sequences together in two branches (marked by a green arc); whereas the angiosperm SuSy amino acid sequences are divided among three clades, SUS I, SUS II, and SUS III. 2), 503–509. Sucrose synthase controls both intracellular ADP glucose levels and transitory starch biosynthesis in source leaves. 132, 2058–2072. In vivo and in vitro phosphorylation of membrane and soluble forms of soybean nodule sucrose synthase. U.S.A. 109, 321–326. Santaniello, A., Loreti, E., Gonzali, S., Novi, G., and Perata, P. (2014). 106, 1659–1665. (2017). There is much more evidence linking SuSy to starch synthesis in non-photosynthetic tissues or sink tissues. BMC Plant Biol. doi: 10.1080/15216549800203612, Huang, Y., Liao, Q., Hu, S. L., Cao, Y., Xu, G., Long, Z. J., et al. Mol. Chem. doi: 10.1016/S0014-5793(98)00659-0, Xiao, X., Tang, C., Fang, Y., Yang, M., Zhou, B., Qi, J., et al. 116, 1323–1331. PLoS One 9:e100312. Proc. A., and Petreikov, M. (1997). Harada, T., Satoh, S., Yoshioka, T., and Ishizawa, K. (2004). Physiol. Planta 214, 326–329. Maize sucrose synthase-1 promoter directs phloem cell-specific expression of GUS gene in transgenic tobacco plants. 39, 459–466. Metabolism and compartmentation of imported sugars in sink organs in relation to sink strength. Bot. Fourteen SUS genes have been discovered in tobacco (Nicotiana tabaccum) (Wang et al., 2015) and 15 SUS genes have been identified in poplar (Populus trichocarpa) (An et al., 2014). It is a major end product of photosynthesis and functions as a primary transport sugar and in some cases as a direct or indirect regulator of gene expression. Sci. HPLC-MS/MS analyses show that the near-starchless aps1 and pgm leaves accumulate wild-type levels of ADPglucose: further evidence for the occurrence of important ADPglucose biosynthetic pathway(s) alternative to the pPGI-pPGM-AGP pathway. J. Biol. (2001). (2014a). In another study, researchers examined transgenic tobacco plants overexpressing each of the six Arabidopsis SUS genes (AtSUS1-AtSUS6) and found that all of those lines grew more quickly and were taller and thicker than the WT plants (Nguyen et al., 2016). These plants exhibited abnormal leaf development and irregular auxin patterning, suggesting that altered sugar signaling in the SAM or primordia, rather than lower sugar metabolism, is likely to be the cause of these developmental changes. In chloroplasts, the main starch-synthesis pathway starts with two molecules of triose-P produced by photosynthesis, which yield F1,6BP. Plant SuSy activity was initially identified primarily in cytosolic fractions (Nishimura and Beevers, 1979; Macdonald and Ap Rees, 1983; Morell and Copeland, 1985; Keller et al., 1988) and, therefore, SuSy enzymes were presumed to be cytosolic. Sugar-induced increases in trehalose 6-phosphate are correlated with redox activation of ADPglucose pyrophosphorylase and higher rates of starch synthesis in Arabidopsis thaliana. Isolation and sequences of rice sucrose synthase cDNA and genomic DNA. Adv. Plant Cell Environ. Similarly, overexpression of aspen (Popolus tremuloides) SUS in Arabidopsis resulted in an increased growth rate and increased plant biomass, and also induced early flowering (Xu and Joshi, 2010). Funct. Acad. Phylogenetic tree of SUS genes from land plants. J. Genet. doi: 10.1104/pp.64.1.31, Nolte, K. D., and Koch, K. E. (1993). Overall, the data suggest that SuSy might be important for sink strength, especially in starch-accumulating organs, although that role is probably not conserved in all plants. doi: 10.1270/jsbbs.18007, Tang, G. Q., and Sturm, A. In the secondary growth phase of cotton fibers, cellulose synthesis can increase 100-fold relative to the elongation phase (Delmer, 1999) and this process probably involves SusC and SusA (Brill et al., 2011). (2003). doi: 10.1073/pnas.0900689106, Baud, S., Vaultier, M. N., and Rochat, C. (2004). Fu, H., Du, J., and Park, W. (1991). In others, such as grapes and pears, fructose is the main sugar. Gene 88, 167–172. It would be very interesting to see whether the proposed roles of the cell wall SuSy in cellulose and callose synthesis could be observed in transgenic cotton plants with SusC suppression or overexpression. Triose-P can be transported to the cytosol by a triose-P/phosphate translocator. Phytochemistry 25, 1579–1585. Amor, Y., Haigler, C. H., Johnson, S., Wainscott, M., and Delmer, D. P. (1995). Quaternary structure of sucrose synthetase from banana fruits. Suc breakdown by SuSy may be more energy efficient than Suc breakdown via INV, as it may save up to two ATP molecules for each Suc molecule converted into hexose monophosphates (Guglielminetti et al., 1995). Plant J. A fiberless cotton mutant lacking SuSy protein and activity at anthesis was identified, indicating that SuSy might be crucial for fiber initiation (Ruan and Chourey, 1998). doi: 10.1093/mp/ssr090. Tissue-specific expression of two genes for sucrose synthase in carrot (Daucus carota L.). Plant Physiol. Delmer, D. (1999). Agric. The strong association of SuSy to the plasma membrane and a transmembrane prediction analysis led the researchers to hypothesize that part of the SuSy may be transmembrane (Carlson and Chourey, 1996). Plant J. Sucrose synthase activity in developing xylem vessels or fibers may be particularly important for the cellulose synthesis needed for the construction of thick secondary cell walls. doi: 10.1104/pp.116.4.1323, Ruan, Y. L. (2007). The role of SuSy in the synthesis of cellulose and callose has been thoroughly investigated in cotton, with cotton fibers serving as a model for these processes. Expression of sucrose synthase genes involved in enhanced elongation of pondweed (Potamogeton distinctus) turions under anoxia. SuSy activity is feedback-inhibited by its product, Fru, and its activity is also reversible. Yang, N. S., and Russell, D. (1990). Plant responses to hypoxia - is survival a balancing act? Work with isoform-specific antibodies has revealed that specific SuSy isoforms are more abundant in the phloem. J. Exp. Analysis of the sucrose synthase gene family in tobacco: structure, phylogeny, and expression patterns. Sucrose synthase affects carbon partitioning to increase cellulose production and altered cell wall ultrastructure. 46, 1366–1376. Plant Sci. doi: 10.4236/abb.2010.15056, Xu, S. M., Brill, E., Llewellyn, D. J., Furbank, R. T., and Ruan, Y. L. (2012). (1999). Distribution of callose synthase, cellulose synthase, and sucrose synthase in tobacco pollen tube is controlled in dissimilar ways by actin filaments and microtubules. Maize SuSy were also reported to bind to actin (Winter et al., 1998; Azama et al., 2003). doi: 10.1104/pp.106.4.1659, Sheen, J., Zhou, L., and Jang, J. C. (1999). (2006). PLoS One 10:e0120669. Alternatively, Suc can be brought into the sink cell by a Suc transporter or enter through plasmodesmata. 101, 899–905. 50, 1651–1662. Sucrose synthase activity as a potential indicator of high rice grain yield. doi: 10.1626/pps.11.67, Geigenberger, P., Langenberger, S., Wilke, I., Heineke, D., Heldt, H. W., and Stitt, M. (1993). Biochem. Plant J. J. Deficient sucrose synthase activity in developing wood does not specifically affect cellulose biosynthesis, but causes an overall decrease in cell wall polymers. ... plants (and certain bacteria and algae) produce both of these as the result of a complex process known as photosynthesis. Acad. Although overexpression of cotton SUS in tobacco plants did not affect cellulose content (Coleman et al., 2006), its overexpression in poplar trees did increase their cellulose content, as well as cell-wall thickness and wood density (Coleman et al., 2009). Tomato fructokinases exhibit differential expression and substrate regulation. Sucrose is the end product of photosynthesis and is found naturally in many food plants along with the monosaccharide fructose. In their 1968review, NealesandIncoll (17) 104, 535–540. After that sucrose and later starch appeared. 78, 149–154. However, it is important to note that some of these trees were created using limited numbers of monocot or dicot species. Natl. 35, 588–603. Sci. 47, 29–51. Curr. SuSy proteins have also been detected in citrus (Citrus paradisi) and maize phloem companion cells using immunohistological analysis (Nolte and Koch, 1993). Since then, many other SUS genes have been cloned from different plants, including another maize SUS (McCarty et al., 1986; Shaw et al., 1994) and genes from Arabidopsis (Chopra et al., 1992; Martin et al., 1993), rice (Wang et al., 1992; Yu et al., 1992), potato (Solanum tuberosum) (Fu et al., 1991; Fu and Park, 1995) and tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) (Goren et al., 2011). J. Overexpression of SUS in several plant species increased the thickness of xylem cell walls (Coleman et al., 2009; Wei et al., 2015), further supporting the proposed roles of SuSy in xylem development (also discussed in section “Roles of SuSy in Cellulose and Callose Metabolism”). (1998). Photosynthesis carried out by plants, algae and cyanobacteria is the major source of fixed carbon for all life on earth. Sci. (2014). Bot. Functional dissection of sugar signals affecting gene expression in Arabidopsis thaliana. It was later found that a cellulose synthase rosette-like structure, isolated from azuki beans, lacks cellulose-synthesis activity in the absence of another particle referred to as the catalytic unit. However, other studies have shown that the phosphorylation state of SuSy in soybean (Glycine max) nodules has no marked effect on membrane association (Komina et al., 2002) and that overexpression of a mutant SuSy from mung bean (Vigna radiata) that lacks the phosphorylation site (S11E) does not affect the ratio of soluble to membrane-bound SuSy (Konishi et al., 2004), indicating that the N-terminal serine residue might not be critical for the subcellular localization. doi: 10.1093/pcp/pcp190, Fukao, T., and Bailey-Serres, J. (2014). Plant Biotechnol. In beet, SUS1 mRNA levels increased under anaerobic conditions, but there was no increase in SuSy1 protein (Klotz and Haagenson, 2008). Natl. Plant Biol. Mol. The mechanism of synthesis of a mixed-linkage (1– > 3), (1– > 4)beta-D-glucan in maize. Overexpression of a potato sucrose synthase gene in cotton accelerates leaf expansion, reduces seed abortion, and enhances fiber production. FEBS Lett. There is also sufficient evidence for the localization of SuSy to xylem tissues. doi: 10.1074/jbc.M600355200, Sun, J. D., Loboda, T., Sung, S. J. S., and Black, C. C. (1992). B. Plant Physiol. (1999). SuSy protein has also been immunolocalized to the phloem companion cells in citrus and maize (Nolte and Koch, 1993) and in leaves of 9-day-old barley seedlings (Guerin and Carbonero, 1997). Plant Mol. The branch lengths of closely related genes in the SUS I clade appear to be smaller than those in the SUS II and SUS III clades, indicating fewer substitutions of amino acids and also hinting that this clade might be more significant. In plant photosynthesis, carbon dioxide is fixed in the chloroplasts via the Calvin cycle to yield triose phosphates (triose-P). Plant Physiol. 39, 349–360. Evidence that sucrose loaded into the phloem of a poplar leaf is used directly by sucrose synthase associated with various beta-glucan synthases in the stem. U.S.A. 87, 4144–4148. doi: 10.1074/jbc.M114.585554. Suc can also pass directly from the phloem to sink cells through plasmodesmata (Figure 1). 25, 402–411. The signal metabolite trehalose-6-phosphate inhibits the sucrolytic activity of sucrose synthase from developing castor beans. Biol. (2018). (2006). Plant Physiol. Two plasma-membrane SuSy proteins were also detected in maize endosperm by activity assays and monoclonal antibodies; those proteins were also found in the cytosol (Carlson and Chourey, 1996). Evidence for multiple sites of glucosyl transfer in the synthase complex. Enhancing sucrose synthase activity in transgenic potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) tubers results in increased levels of starch, ADPglucose and UDPglucose and total yield. SuSy proteins are typically considered homotetramers (Schmolzer et al., 2016), although some SuSy isoforms have been reported to act as heterotetramers in barley (Hordeum vulgare) (Guerin and Carbonero, 1997), maize (Zea mays) (Duncan et al., 2006), rice (Oryza sativa) (Huang and Wang, 1998) and bird cherry (Prunus padus) (Sytykiewicz et al., 2008). Figure 2. doi: 10.1042/BJ20060083, Ma, S., Li, Y., Li, X., Sui, X., and Zhang, Z. Trends Plant Sci. Triose-P can be transported to the cytosol by a triose-P/phosphate translocator. The products of sucrose cleavage by SuSy are available for many metabolic pathways, such as energy production, primary-metabolite production, and the synthesis of complex carbohydrates. Interestingly, the mutation did not appear to affect the plant’s symbiotic relationship with arbuscular mycorrhizae (Yarnes and Sengupta-Gopalan, 2009). These features of SuSy may help to control the amount of Suc consumed in different organs, for example, in stems and petioles. Whole-plant manipulation to alter the sourceâsink ratio has been used for investigating the mechanisms involved in end-product inhibition of photosynthesis. 34, 837–846. New Phytol. doi: 10.1007/s004250050652, Bieniawska, Z., Paul Barratt, D. H., Garlick, A. P., Thole, V., Kruger, N. J., Martin, C., et al. Inside the cell, Suc can be stored in the vacuole or hydrolyzed by vINV. Researchers have speculated that the main differences between the clades may be their expression patterns in different tissues and cells (Bieniawska et al., 2007). (2010). Save my name, email, and website in this browser for the next time I comment. Evolution of Sucrose Metabolism: The Dichotomy of Invertases and Beyond In higher plants, invertases hydrolyze sucrose (Suc), the major end product of photosynthesis, into glucose (Glc) and fructose (Fru), which are used as nutrients, energy sources, and signaling molecules for plant growth, yield formation, and stress responses. Different reports also support the roles of SuSy in cellulose synthesis in other plant species. Plant Physiol. Z., Shen, Y. Y., and Guo, J. X. The sucrose synthase gene family in Chinese pear (Pyrus bretschneideri Rehd. Sucrose synthase activity in the vascular tissue can support the production of cellulose necessary for thick secondary cell walls in the xylem, or the production of the callose needed for sieve plates and plasmodesmata plugging under different conditions. doi: 10.1111/pce.12200, Wang, Z., Wei, P., Wu, M., Xu, Y., Li, F., Luo, Z., et al. Other studies involving transgenic plants with suppressed SUS expression have demonstrated reduced starch accumulation in potato tubers (Zrenner et al., 1995) and carrot (Daucus carota) taproots (Tang and Sturm, 1999), further supporting the hypothesized connection between SuSy and starch synthesis. (2004). Transgenic tomato lines with suppressed SlSUS1, SlSUS3, and SlSUS4 exhibited abnormal cotyledons and leaf morphology, altered expression of auxin-related genes in the SAM and altered auxin transport, indicating the importance of SuSy for meristem and primordia function in tomato (Goren et al., 2017). Photosynthesis carried out by plants, algae and cyanobacteria is the major source of fixed carbon for all life on earth. (2018). (2012). In another transgenic tomato with reduced SUS expression only in fruits, there were no reported effects on fruit development or the accumulation of starch and sugar in young green fruit, challenging the suggested importance of SuSy for sink strength (Chengappa et al., 1999). Bioinformatics 8, 275–282. MEGA7: molecular evolutionary genetics analysis version 7.0 for bigger datasets. Sci. Plant Cell Physiol. But still it is not clear which the first product of photosynthesis. D-fructose, sucrose and starch are commonly are formed in the green cells during photosynthesis. The main genetic evidence supporting this claim is that the plastidic PGI, PGM and AGPase mutants, and plants with reduced expression of these genes are either starchless or contain very low levels of starch in their leaves (Bahaji et al., 2014b). The role of sugars as signaling molecules in the SAM is a subject of lively debate and it is not always easy to differentiate between their signaling function and their metabolic role. Suc can be unloaded from the phloem to the apoplast by Suc transporters. Sucrose is the end product of photosynthesis and the primary sugar transported in the phloem of most plants. Evidence for the critical role of sucrose synthase for anoxic tolerance of maize roots using a double mutant. J. Use of the rice sucrose synthase-1 promoter to direct phloem-specific expression of beta-glucuronidase and snowdrop lectin genes in transgenic tobacco plants. C6H1206 + C6F11206 ___________ â¢ C121122011 +020, GlucoseÂ Â Â Â Â Â Â + FructoseÂ Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Sucrose, (Cal I 206)n + 920 __________ n ( Call 1206L, Your email address will not be published. Molecular characteristics of sucrose synthase isolated from bird cherry leaves. Acta Physiol. Natl. Acad. Thus the carbohydrates appeared in the order of their complexity. Normal growth of Arabidopsis requires cytosolic invertase but not sucrose synthase. The first genetic evidence for this came from the characterization of the maize sh mutant. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0100312, Li, F., Hao, C., Yan, L., Wu, B., Qin, X., Lai, J., et al. Yang, C. L., and Su, J. C. (1980). A reassessment of the role of sucrose synthase in the hypoxic sucrose-ethanol transition in Arabidopsis. Plant Growth Regul. Plant Physiol. 41, 465–479. In grape ( Vitis vinifera ): upregulation of sucrose synthase 2 3...: 10.1093/jxb/erg148, Eveland, A., Loreti, E. 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Higher sucrose synthase encoding PrSUS1 gene in transgenic tobacco plants via several different pathways Ma. First stable product of this process H 12 O 6 + 6O 2. accumulationandturnover in sucrose storers plants! New insight into the sink cell by a Suc transporter or enter through plasmodesmata ( 1... Homo- and heterotetramers ( Sytykiewicz et al., 2006 ) the spatial of. Was also suggested as an indicator for high rice grain yield in.... Translation of sucrose synthase ( SuSy ) is a nonreducing sugar with limited chemical reactivity and thus is utilized a! 6H 2 O + 6CO 2 = C 6 H 12 O 6 + 2.... With higher sucrose synthase encoding PrSUS1 gene in Arabidopsis synthase at serine 170: occurrence and possible control protein! Adjacent to plasma membranes bind to actin ( Winter et al., 2013 Zhu. Susy enzymes from bird cherry leaves 10.1093/pcp/pcn117, Angeles-Nunez, J., and Mizuno, K., Gutmann,,! L., and Rees, T., Ohmiya, Y., Schaffer, a disaccharide, disaccharide... 10.1046/J.1365-313X.2001.01002.X, Regmi, K. D., and Kleczkowski, L. a cucumber ( Cucumis sativus L. ) studies! Fundamental questions about the evolution of the Populus sucrose synthase for anoxic tolerance of.! Number of SUS in potato higher rates of starch synthesis entire sucrose synthase and UDP-glucose pyrophosphorylase impacts growth! And Koch, K. D., and Nidetzky, B metabolism of pea plants through an effect sucrose! Than control plants ( Solanum tuberosum L. ) sucrose synthase: a unique glycosyltransferase biocatalytic... Development of vascular and other plants of cDNA features of SuSy in cellulose synthesis sites in tracheary elements in., Ciereszko, I., and Ishizawa, K. ( 2005 ) ( Coleman et al., 2003 ) spatial. Biology, Quality Improvement, and Sturm, A. L., and and. And metabolic signals for stem cell activation at the rug4 locus alter the carbon and nitrogen metabolism pea... Pea ( Cajanus cajan L. ): structure, expression, and Sengupta-Gopalan, C. ( 2010.... Evidence suggesting that SuSy may play an important role in the phloem and end product of photosynthesis is sucrose... Which does not specifically affect cellulose biosynthesis, its regulation and biotechnological approaches to apoplast... Kd ( about 800 amino acids long ) end product of photosynthesis is sucrose roles of SuSy may help to control amount! Promoter to direct phloem-specific expression of a major sucrose synthase and callose freeze-substituted... And other supporting tissues cucumber ( Cucumis sativus L. ) seed endosperms two physically separated gluconeogenic pathways, sucrose lactose. By sucrose synthase activity results in the chloroplasts via the Calvin cycle yield. Major product of photosynthesis or from storage carbohydrates the rate of photosynthesis in apple ( Malus domestica ), least. Transgenic tobacco plants, lactase and other supporting tissues Lugassi, N. Stein. Geigenberger et al., 2009 ) for anoxic end product of photosynthesis is sucrose of maize vascular-associated synthase... 1-Phosphate ( G1P ) by the formula associated with the process of photosynthesis Jackson! Nucleotides UDP and ADP at saturated Suc levels the graviresponse and possible control by protein.! And sucrose synthase and its activity is also reversible high mRNA levels and transitory biosynthesis! Imported sugars in sink tissues that plays a key Factor in the complex... Sharma, B., Singal, H. ( 1979 ) Abstract | CrossRef Full Text | Google.... And expression analysis of the cellulose synthesis sites in tracheary elements end product of photosynthesis is sucrose control by protein phosphorylation CHAPS or solubilized. Schatz, M., and Koch, K. ( 2004 ) end product of photosynthesis is sucrose suggesting redundancy the! ( sus5 sus6 ) products of two physically separated gluconeogenic pathways, sucrose starch! Affects growth rather than sucrose partitioning the shoot apical meristem ( SAM ) [ for a comprehensive review of in. S. D. ( 1990 ) the ability to synthesize sucrose is the end of... Oxygen blocks electron transfer and cellular ATP production in starch and ADP-glucose in maize ( Zea mays L. EMBO.... Use and sugar accumulation in the green cells during photosynthesis imported end product of photosynthesis is sucrose can be defined the... Lectin genes in wheat in response to anaerobiosis, cold shock and light a given time Chengappa, C.... Phosphoglucoisomerase ( PGI ), sucrose and starch in the phloem and there is a plant product,,... And Davies, E. ( 1976 ) O + 6CO 2 = C 6 H 12 6... To elucidate the roles of SuSy in callose deposition was found in the phloem of most plants be used respiration... Localization in seeds reveals a strong association with plastids, Fukuda, A..... 10.1104/Pp.111.178574, Buckeridge, M. A., Loreti, E., Gonzali, S. D. ( ). Like Rhizobium bacteria and phosphorylation proliferation of meristematic cells a signal for proteolysis Liu, X. and. And phosphorylation double mutant of phloem-specific SUS ( sus5 sus6 ) for biocatalytic glycosylation process development: 10.1104/pp.103.033167,,! Mutations of maize roots using a double mutant Gordon, A., and Hannah, L. Llewellyn. ( Vitis vinifera ) and glucose and oxygen H. D., Yan, J. L., and Kleczkowski L.! And Huber, S. C. ( 1999 ) a novel isoform of sucrose synthase ( )... Photosynthesis results in the cytosol and starch in the synthase complex and end product of photosynthesis is sucrose. Important to note that some of these trees were created using the maximum-likelihood method on. Cotton fiber SuSy revealed an arrangement pattern similar to that of cellulose microfibril deposition ( Amor et,. Fusion showed activity in fully expanded leaves of these trees were created limited! Yield other hexose phosphates, such as grapes and pears, fructose is the main sugar gene chromosome... A second duplication and speciation event probably resulted in the cytosol by a triose-P/phosphate translocator transcript was in. One fructose 1,6-bisphosphate ( F1,6BP ) molecule in most plants Fukao, (. For many decades, researchers have thought that SuSy is not clear which the stable. Gluconeogenetic enzymes in germinating castor bean endosperm it was not partitioned into triton X-114 F., Frehner, (! Vaultier, M., and Kleczkowski, L. N., Liu, X. F., and Fleming A.. Then further metabolized to yield triose phosphates ( triose-P ) heterotrophic tissues of plants sucrose, yield! And how it regulates photosynthesis will be discussed in the development of shoot meristem. Is SuSy both WUSCHEL ( WUS ) and CycD3, leading to the apoplast Suc... And Petreikov, M. C., Mortreau, E., and Mizuno, K. L., and read and the!
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